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Chapter Twelve: The Fourth Hat - Skillful Influencer

Excerpted with permission of the publisher, from the Take Your Sales Performance Up a Notch
Copyright 2003, by Dave Kahle.

Welcome to the fourth hat, Skillful Influencer. I realize that some of you, looking at the word "influencer," may have previously thought that this term describes what sales was all about. By now, however, you know that's not the case. Not in the Information Age. Influencing your customer is just one of the six hats, not the whole of the job.

That's not to say that the skills and competencies contained in this hat are unimportant. They are incredibly important. After all, the final measurement of your success is money changing hands. And a major part of bringing that exchange about has to do with your skill at influencing people to do business with you. Without your customers saying "yes" to you in a regular fashion, you're going to soon be without a job. So, you need to concentrate on taking these skills Up-a-Notch -- the skills and competencies required to influence people to give you money for what you offer.

In one sense, that's part of the contribution made by several of the other hats. The second hat, Trusted Friend, and the third hat, Effective Consultant, both speak directly to your need to influence your customers. Influence is much easier and more effective when you engage both of those hats. They set the stage and precondition the customer to be receptive to what you're saying. Think of them as necessary but indirect.

When you put on this hat, however, you're focusing specifically on your direct activity in moving your customer to take action on your behalf.

It's like basketball. At some point, you must put the ball in the basket. But you can't do that without developing the skills of dribbling, rebounding, and passing. Those skills are necessary, but not sufficient. They get you to the point where you have an opportunity to put the ball in the basket. Presenting and closing, the skills we're going to discuss in this chapter, are the equivalent of putting the ball in the basket. And that brings us to the first principle: Deciding to buy is a process, consisting of a series of small decisions. When your customers decide to give you money for what you're offering, that decision doesn't exist in a vacuum. The decision is only the latest in a string of decisions that your customer made along the way.

Let's illustrate with a simple selling situation. Let's say you're selling an expensive product to homeowners - water conditioners. Your company advertises in the phone books, occasionally on TV, and regularly in the newspapers. As a result, you are supplied with a good quantity of leads. When you attempt to sell a water conditioner, it is usually a one-call sales process, with the customers often deciding if they are going to spend money with you while you are there with them. That's about as simple a sales situation as there is. Your own selling situation may be quite a bit more involved than that.

Now, let's look at the process involved, from the customer's perspective, as the customer proceeds to a decision to buy. For a change, we're not going to describe a process for you to follow, but rather one which customers generally follow.

Let's think in terms of the decisions a customer must make along the way. The first decision the customer must make is whether or not to phone your company as a result of the advertisement. If they decide not to, you never hear of them. But some decide to do so, and thus move one step forward in the process.

What's the next decision? One you probably haven't thought of. They need to decide whether or not to interact honestly with the person on the other end of the phone. Let's say you are in the office and you receive the call. In the first few moments of that call, the customer on the other end of the phone is making a sub-conscious decision as to how candid to be with you. You know that, because you've been in the same position when you've been the buyer. If the person on the other end of the phone is curt, abrasive, a know-it-all, or unconcerned about you, chances are you won't spend a lot of time describing your situation and asking questions. You'll brush if off as best you can, and move on to someone else. So it is with your customers. In this situation, as in yours, they must make a decision to interact honestly with you before the sales process can go forward. That's the second decision in this simple sales process.

Let's start to illustrate these decisions. Look at illustration #12-1 which shows the sequence.

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Once they've decided to interact with you, you're probably going to ask for an appointment to see them. The decision to give you an appointment is #3. Our diagram now looks like this (#12-2).

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What's the next decision? It's not to buy-you're getting way too far ahead of things. The next decision is whether or not to keep the appointment they made with you. I'm sure you've had lots of appointments that were broken by one side or the other. It's probably a weekly, if not daily occurrence for some salespeople. If they don't keep the appointment, you time is wasted and your job complicated. So, before you can influence them to spend money with you, you must influence them to keep the appointment. Now, our diagram looks like this (#12-3).

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Ok, let's say they have kept the appointment, and you're entering the home of your customers. Both husband and wife are there to talk with you. What's the next decision? It's similar to the decision your customer made in the first few moments of the phone call. They need to decide whether or not to interact honestly and thoroughly with you. If they don't trust you, don't like you, or find something about you that makes them uncomfortable or suspicious, they won't want to deal with you.

In our home remodeling project, we had two electricians come to the house to estimate a significant piece of electrical work. The first was a very personable young man, the owner of a small electrical contracting business who came in the early evening, at the end of his work day. He was pleasant and knowledgeable, and even offered some ideas on how to do the job less expensively. He took the time to ask some good questions, and got to know our requirements. He said he'd fax me a written estimate the next day, and he did so.

The next day, the second electrician showed up. He called 35 minutes after he was supposed to arrive, saying he was delayed and would be late. He never apologized for being late. When he appeared, he had a bit of a sour attitude about him, and never smiled the whole time he was there. As I showed him the project, he made comments about how difficult it would be. Half way through the conversation, I decided not to spend any more time with him. I never mentioned the complete list of items I wanted done, because I had already decided not to do business with him.

In the first few moments of his time with me, I made the decision not to interact honestly and thoroughly with him.

That's the reality of how your customers operate. Without a positive decision at this point, you'll never have an opportunity to get to the final decision. Our illustration now looks like this: (#12-4).

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Finally, if you've successfully influenced your customer to make positive decisions along the way, you'll have the opportunity to present them with the final decision, to say yes or no to your offer. (#12-5)

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This illustration describes a very simple selling situation. Yet, even in this one-call closing situation, we've identified six specific decisions that customers must make in order for you to walk away with an order. Imagine how complex can be the process to purchase something like a new telephone system that affects almost every employee of the company. Or a major piece of capital equipment around which the production line revolves.

Since this buying process is an involved series of small decisions, you must match it with a process of your own. Your job, as a Skillful Influencer, is to facilitate this buying process so that your customer finds it easy to say "yes" to you at each step along the way. In order to facilitate this, you need to master the fundamental process for influencing people to take action.

Managing an Interactive Sales Dialogue

The heart of the sales process is the conversation with your customers and prospects. It's that moment in time where you are face to face with the customer, that defines the uniqueness of your position, and distinguishes you from all the others who work for your company. If you're going to be a skillful influencer, you must master this process.

To begin, let's think about the most basic steps of the sales process. We've looked at a simple sales process from the perspective of the buyer. Now, let's look at a simple sales process, in its simplest form, from the perspective of the seller -- you. What you do when you speak with your customers is this:
  • You make them comfortable with you.
  • You find out what they want.
  • You describe what you offer.
  • You show how what you have helps them get what they want.
  • You get their agreement to take the next step.

That simple five-step process is basic to every interaction you have with your customer. It's the heart of influencing. It can takes months to complete in an intricate sales process, or it can be whisked through in two minutes over the phone. For example, in the initial phone call from our example above, their decision is twofold:
1) whether to interact honestly and thoroughly with you, and
2) whether to make an appointment with you.

You're job is to facilitate those two decisions. So, you make them comfortable with you, which facilitates the first decision, and then listen to their story, present to them the need for an appointment, and ask for the appointment. That facilitates the next decision. In this short two-to-five minute phone call, you've progressed through each of the five basic steps.

On a grander scale, let's think about a very complex, long term sales process. Let's say you're selling production equipment with a price tag in the hundreds of thousands of dollars. Several of my clients are in this business. One of them, following my discussion of flow-charting sales processes, identified 27 specific steps to go from the initial meeting to the final resolution of the sale. For the salesperson, each interaction with the customer provides an opportunity to progress through the five steps. But the whole 27 steps can be laid out in relation to the five steps, with each of the 27 specific steps being a small movement toward each of the larger five steps. For example, a salesperson may meet with the production supervisor to get that person's take on the intricacies of the equipment. Then the salesperson may meet with the current operators or foreman to understand their perspectives. Next he may meet with the controller to understand the company's financing preferences and return on investment goals. Finally, the salesperson may meet with the purchasing agent handling the sale to gather that perspective. Those are four specific meetings, four of the 27 steps. Yet they all are a form of step two "Find out what they want." In this case it could take weeks to complete that step.

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So, this process is basic to every interaction you have with your customer. It's the heart of influencing.

Let's examine the process and consider how to master it. As you master it, you'll be able to use it effectively countless times throughout the day. Several years ago, I would have described this process as making a sales presentation. But that term emphasizes one-way communication -- you talking to the customer -- and that's just not effective.

So, now I describe this process as managing a sales interaction. Here's why I've changed my terminology. Managing describes your major role. Your primary role is not a presenter of information. Rather, your primary role is to manage the communication process between you and your customer.What happens between you and your customer is solely and entirely your responsibility. Like a manager is responsible for the processes in his department, so, too, you are responsible for the communication process between you and your customer.

Interactive refers to the notion that the communication is two-way, not one-way. It consists of conversation between you and your customer. Without conversation from your customer, the sales process is not viable. Selling isn't telling. If anything, the more your customer talks, and the less talking you do, the more effective the sales call is.

Sales refers to the fact that this communication is moving toward an agreement between the two of you. When you're passing the time of day with your spouse, or engaging in light banter at a cocktail party, it's not a sales dialogue. The purpose of the communication is not to come to an agreement. My definition of sales is this: influencing a customer to come to an agreement with you to purchase something you offer. The agreement is the main thing. So, this conversation is a sales conversation because it focuses on coming to an agreement.

Finally, it's a dialogue. That means it's an honest exchange of feeling, facts, values, and perceptions. The depth and quality of that interaction and communication is the distinguishing standard.

Now, understanding the definition of the process, the question is "How do you manage an interactive sales dialogue so that the chances of its success are enhanced?" Let's start by comparing the process to a baseball game. Illustration # 12-6 graphically describes the process. You know how baseball is played. If you're the batter, you start by taking your position in the on-deck circle. There you wait for your opportunity to get to bat. If you never get to the batter's box, you never have an opportunity to score.

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If you're fortunate, you get to the batter's box. Now you have an opportunity to make a hit and score a run. If you're good, and you make a hit, you run to first base. If you successfully negotiate first base, you then move to second base. From second you move to third. At this point, how many runs have you scored?

Obviously, none. Nothing counts until you make it home. Now, let's compare this process to our interactive sales dialogue. Each of the steps in the baseball process corresponds to the four basic steps of the sales process. In baseball, you first need to move from the on-deck circle to the batter's box. Study illustration #12-7.

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In the sales process, that occurs when you put on your Trusted Friend hat and establish some rapport with the customer and make him/her feel comfortable with you. Without that, you have very little opportunity to go further.

Once you get to the batter's box, you next have to hit the ball and run to first base. First base in the sales process is understanding the customer's needs and interests. You'll use your third hat, Effective Consultant, to do that.

Just like, when you're playing baseball, you can't go to second base until you've made it to first safely, so too, in sales, you can't really talk about your product or services until you successfully understand your customer's needs. You accomplish this primarily by asking good questions, and listening constructively.

Now, you're ready to move to second base. You arrive at second base when you finally earn the opportunity to point out the features of your product or service. From that point you move quickly to third base, which requires you to translate those features into benefits.

Finally, to score a run, you have to safely negotiate home plate. In the sales process, that means that you successfully acquire an agreement from your customer for the next step or the action that both of you will take as a result of your dialogue.

To a great degree, your success as a salesperson will be dependent on your ability to successfully manage interactive sales dialogues over and over again with your customers. Let's discuss each step of this process in detail.

Step One:  Get to the batter's box (Help them feel comfortable with you.)

Getting to the batter's box means that you have created a feeling of comfort and trust in the customer. That's a necessary prerequisite for going further. You don't get a chance to even take a swing unless you've done that.

Here's where you start flipping hats on and off. The techniques we discussed in the sections devoted to the second hat, Trusted Friend, come into play. You employ those competencies in the early part of a sales dialogue to create comfort and interest. Reflecting your customer's style, showing interest, connecting with your customer on a personal and/or business basis - these will be your primary strategies for helping the customer feel comfortable with you.

Step Two:  First base. (Understand your customer.)

Once you've achieved that, you can move on to the next step -- getting to first base. In sales, that means understanding the customer. Put on hat number three, Effective Consultant, to achieve this.

This is the time to implement all the skills we discussed in chapters nine and ten. Use them effectively, and you'll do a masterful job of getting to first base.

Step Three:  Second base. (Communicate the features of your offering.)

In baseball, once you've gotten to first base, your next goal is second base. So too, in sales, once you've acquired an understanding of your customer, it's time to present your product/service or offering. We'll be discussing this in detail shortly. In the analogy, presenting the features of your offering gets you successfully to second base.

Step Four:  Third base. (Translate them into benefits.)

From there, third base is the goal. In sales, that means describing how your product/service/offering will impact the person- your customer. You now talk about the customer, not your offering. We'll discuss this in more detail shortly, also.

In the sales process, you successfully negotiate second and third base by mastering the competency of presenting.

Step Five:  Home Plate. (Acquire and agreement for action.)

In baseball, nothing really matters until someone crosses home plate. Only then does the score change, and all your effort count. So, too, in sales. Nothing really matters until you get an agreement from the customer to take the next step. The next step could be anything from issuing a purchase order to agreeing to an appointment. The important thing is that your sales process is not successful until your customer agrees to some action.

This requires you to become adept at closing, and that is the issue we'll discuss in the next chapter.

Since we've already discussed the competencies involved in moving from the on-deck circle to the batter's box in previous chapters, let's focus on presenting and closing, the two core competencies involved in mastering this hat, Skillful Influencer. These are the skills you use to travel from first base to home plate.


Presentations are always about two subjects:
your offering and your customer.

One of the most common mistakes that salespeople often make is this - they focus their presentation on their offerings exclusively - forgetting to talk about the customer. It's a common mistake of both the greenest rookie to the most experienced professional. This "product-focused" selling is a vestige of days gone by.

Remember my experience in my first sales training session? Six weeks of memorizing a presentation, all about the features of the product I was selling. That was OK when times were slower, products and services were much more distinguishable from one another, and customers had more time. But no longer.

Today's skillful influencer must do the work for the customer, not only pointing out the features of the product/service, but also translating those into descriptions of how they impact the customer. Skillful presentations, are, therefore, just as much about the person (that's the individual, department, or company to whom you're selling) as well as they are about your product/service.

To be effective, you need to sift through all the features of the product/service, select those that are most important, and relate them to the customer. Here's how you do that.

Presenting Your Product/Service/Offering.

Step One:  Describe your best understanding of the customer's objectives.

Here's the best place to start a presentation, although very few salespeople ever do. Why not begin by restating what your customer wants to accomplish? After all, that is what your customer is interested in. It's the reason he/she's allowed you to be there, the reason he/she's invested time in you. Begin your presentation with a restatement of what your customer wants to achieve - the problems to be overcome, or the objectives to be gained. I always prefer to present the customer with a written description of his SPOO, but you may want to do this verbally.

Then, after you have described the customer's SPOO and before you go any further, ask the customer whether you have accurately understood his/her position.

One of two important things will happen at this point. One, the customer may say that "yes," you have understood and accurately described his/her position. That's great. It means that you're beginning the presentation with a positive -- the customer is saying yes to you. Also, you've already distanced yourself from your competitors because you're probably the only salesperson who cares enough to take the time to make sure you have accurately understood the customer. That will go along way towards influencing your customer. The customer is impressed that you really do understand.

But what if your customer says "NO," you haven't described the situation correctly?

It means one of two things. If you're completely off in your understanding of the customer, then you have no business describing your product/service/offer because it was designed as a solution to your customer's SPOO. If your understanding of the customer is off, your solution will also be off. Stop, encourage your customer to more accurately describe his SPOO, and then make an appointment to come back later with a revised presentation.

It's more likely, however, that you won't have completely misunderstood his SPOO, rather, you'll have missed the mark on one or two small issues. Allow your customer to correct you, thank him/her, and then restate your best understanding of the revised SPOO. If your customer now says, "Yes," then you've achieved this initial agreement, and you can proceed with the presentation.

In either case, you eventually begin with a very positive step that differentiates you from the competition. With that accomplished, you can move into the discussion of what you have to offer as a means of helping your customer accomplish his SPOO.

Step Two:  Identify the salient features of your product or service.

Features are describable characteristics of your product/service/offering. For example, if you're selling a mechanical pencil, you could talk about the size of the lead, the weight of the pencil, the color, shape, it's material composition, where and how it was made, it's price, etc. You could also talk about your company's inventory of those pencil, your history, how long you've been in the pencil selling business, how many people have bought them from you. All these are features.

Some are features of the product, but others are features of your company, yourself, and your offering. All of these are part of the buying decision. Your customer doesn't just buy a pencil. He buys it from an individual (you), and a company (your company). He buys it at a certain price with certain delivery arrangements and payments terms. All of these are part of the buying decision and may be described to help the customer make a good decision.

When I'm teaching this module in a sales training session, I'll have the participants pick a product or service they sell, and list ten features. When they're finished, I'll challenge them to double the number of features they've listed. When they're finished with that exercise, I'll often ask them to double, again, the number of features they've listed. It takes some creativity, but it can always be done. The point of the exercise is this - you have far more things to talk about then you have time in which to do so. You can't possibly take the time to describe 40 features of a product, of yourself, of your company and of the offer, so you have to prioritize and only describe those features that are important to your customer.

And how do you know what they are? That's why you run to first base first. You've taken the time to understand your customer's SPOO and PIE, and now you can select those features that are most important to him/her.

Step Three:  Communicate the features with detail and power.

Which of these two statements is more credible? "It produces about a 50% return." "It produces 49.67% return."

If you're like most people, the second statement sounds more credible. Why? because of the detail. There is credibility and substance in accurate detail. Unfortunately, most salespeople are not detail-oriented, so they've fallen into the habits of using general terms, and thereby forfeit much of the power of their presentation. I like to call statements like "about 50%" as "salesperson's talk." "Salesperson's talk" is comprised of general, vague statements that are difficult to substantiate and designed to be positive-sounding.

Test yourself. If you're buying and you're considering two proposals, which of these two statements makes you feel more comfortable and confident with the salesperson who makes the statements?

"It'll cost around $2,500.00." "It'll cost $2,511.27."

There is power in the detail. Use it.

But that's not the only way to add power to your presentation. Another way is to prepare third party recommendations. These can be case studies, letters of recommendation, third party studies, or lists of happy customers. These documents should be designed to support the credibility of what you're saying. Believe me, just because you say it doesn't mean that your customer believes it. If you can provide some one else to support your statement, you'll add power to your presentations.

Here's one other technique to add power to your presentations. Get your customer involved in the presentation as deeply and broadly as possible. If you're presenting a physical thing, for example, hand it to your customer and have them work the latches, flip the buttons, etc. If you're presenting a service or a concept (like an insurance policy) have them fill in the blanks for the calculations, add simple figures, etc. The more you're customers are involved, the more likely they are to believe what they've just encountered, and the more power you've built into the presentation.

Back to the example of the mechanical pencil. In order to add power in the presentation, you may want to hand your customer the pencil and say, "Here, take a look at it yourself." By doing so, you've involved your customer in the presentation, and appealed to a source other then yourself to validate your statement. That source is your customer!

Step Four:  Translate the features into specific benefits.

When you translate a feature into a benefit, the subject of your sentence changes. When you're describing a feature, you talk about it. What you're describing a benefit, you talk about your customer. The subject of a feature sentence is the product or service. The subject of a benefit sentence is your customer.

Remember PIE? Problems/objective, implications, emotions. Your presentation should parallel those three levels. Features parallels problems/objectives, and benefits parallel implications. In other words, your benefits describe the positive effect your product will have on the implications of the customer.

For example, let's say you're selling that mechanical pencil. You've described the extra long eraser contained inside the top of the pencil. That's the feature. It's a describable characteristic of the thing. Then you translate that feature into a benefit that addresses one of your customer's implications. You say, "This means that you can erase a whole page of notes or a number of column of numbers without having to change erasers. You won't have to keep separate erasers on your desk, so you'll save money."

That's a benefit. It described the implication on the customer. Notice the subject of the sentence is "You." Here's a simple technique for translating features into benefits. Use the transitional phrase, "This means that you." Because it's a transition, your customer won't even notice the language, yet it helps you stick to the rule of changing the subject of the sentience.

Step Five:  Render those into descriptions of positive emotions.

Remember PIE. You've addressed their problems and implications, so now it's time to address the emotional level. Now you're going to render each of the benefits into how that will make the customer feel. Back to the mechanical pencil. You've just said, "This means that you can erase a whole page of notes or a number of column of numbers without having to change erasers. You won't have to keep separate erasers on your desk, so you'll save money."

Now, you render that benefit into a description of a positive effect on your customer's emotions. You say something like this: "So you won't be frustrated at having to search for extra erasures or aggravated at having to constantly switch from a pencil to an eraser."

And so you proceed through your selection of features, describing the feature, translating it into a benefit and rendering the benefit into a description of a positive emotion.

You can use this inductive approach, or flip-flop the sequence and use a deductive approach, reasoning from the end result, the emotion, to the benefit, and from the benefit to the feature. Illustration #12 - 8 illustrates the relationship between your earlier understanding of the customer's SPOO and PIE, and your presentation of your offering.

Presenting on the Next Level: Concepts and Philosophy

As your customers grow more and more weary of the pressures on them, they look for ways to reduce their stress and ease their time constraints. At some point, with some customers, the issue is no longer which product to buy. Rather, it's which company has the concept or philosophy that most compatibly matches theirs. That is a smart long term strategy on their part.

A great example of this is our own experience with software. I'm sure you have a similar story. A number of years ago, back in the old days of DOS, we had identified a need for a word processing program as well as a flexible data-base. Our search lead us to a great software package which was heavily promoted at the time. It was the highest rated world processing program combined with the number one rated data-base program. We bought it, learned to use it, and standardized on it.

It was a great product, perfect for our needs at the time. But, we made a mistake by buying it. A few years later, we watched the growth of Windows-based applications. The company eventually produced Windows versions of both programs, but it was clear they were loosing interest in those products, deciding as a company to put their R& D money into other kinds of programs. We were stuck with an obsolete system.

We're smarter now. We've converted to a brand of software that we know is not the best on the market. However, we know the company, philosophically, is committed to continuously improving products for small businesses like mine. Long term, it's going to be less hassle and less time to have gone with a company with a philosophy that's compatible with who we are.

When you're presenting to your customers, think about not just the product or service you offer, but the long-term impact that comes from positioning your company's philosophy.

Regardless, at some point you're going to have completed your presentation, and it will be time to close the sale. And that's what we'll be discussing in the next chapter.

Take Your Sales Performance Up a Notch

Dave's book, Take Your Sales Performance Up a Notch is jam packed with helpful strategies to help your increase your sales. [Learn More Here...]

Dave Kahle offers a variety of resources that can help your business stay competitive in changing times. To learn you can reach Dave by phone at 800-331-1287 or send him an email request.

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